The benefits of massage therapy (eng)

From Chronic Conditions to Quality of Life, Massage Research is Proving a Point 

For some, massage therapy is a short-term intervention to help with injury and rehabilitation. For others, massage is their salve to reduce the stresses of a hurried and chaotic life. Wherever you are on the spectrum of health care, massage offers many valuable benefits to those who receive it. This resource will provide a bit of background about massage therapy in general, and then we’ll look at what scientific research says about benefits of massage for specific populations. 

Touch Hunger

From the earliest days of humankind, when one person reached out to soothe another, we have known that welcomed physical contact is good for us. The loving touch that occurs between infants and their caregivers helps to create a sense of safety in the world that follows us for a lifetime. Touch that occurs between humans helps us to build our foundational relationships, supports social interaction, enables emotional sharing, and provides many other benefits (Gentsch, Brendtro).

By contrast, prolonged touch deprivation is connected with failure to thrive and the inability to create social attachments when it happens in infants and young children (Jakubiak), and with shorter lifespans and more illness in isolated elders (Butts).

The need for healthy touch is so important, and the consequences of touch deprivation are so dire, that groundbreaking anthropologist Ashley Montagu gave our drive for this form of human-to-human interaction a name: “touch hunger” (Montagu). We know that touch is a basic human need, but we live in a society with few appropriate venues for physical contact. Massage therapy is an intervention that meets that need.

What is Massage?

Defining massage turns out to be a tricky proposition. Many cultures across the globe have traditional touch-related protocols designed to promote health, but not all practitioners of these arts would consider their work to be massage. For our purposes, we will consider massage to include any skilled hands-on interventions that work toward improving a person’s well-being and/or function through manipulating skin, fascia, and muscles.

Research Has Revealed a Lot About Massage 

For this resource we have pulled together findings from small-scale projects that might have just a few participants, substantial clinical trials, and large-scale systematic reviews and meta-analyses—these are compilations of multiple studies that combine results. Each study comes from a peer-reviewed academic publication. We arranged information by population groups, but diseases and conditions don’t occur by themselves; there’s always crossover, so any single study might address multiple issues.

For healthy people: wellness, relaxation, revitalization, improved immune system function 

While most research is conducted in the context of illnesses or conditions, some studies have looked at bodywork for healthy people, and concluded that massage therapy for wellness or for stress relief is consistently effective in a variety of ways. Even a simple hand massage appears to move healthy people into a relaxed state (Kunikata). A comparison of traditional Swedish massage and Thai massage found that Swedish massage produced stronger relaxation responses and improved sleep, while Thai massage led to a sense of energy and revitalization (MacSween). Improvements in immune system function, along with reductions in stress-related hormones have been found as well (Barreto, Lovas, Rapaport). More specific effects of massage for stress are covered in the context of some of the conditions listed below.

Massage in the workplace: reduced injuries, improved job satisfaction

Several studies have looked at what benefits occur when massage therapy is offered in the workplace. Through these we see that onsite massage can help to prevent overuse injuries (Cabak), decrease pain and increase range of motion (Siško), reduce blood pressure (Day), and improve job satisfaction (Back) among office workers. Other studies found it is both feasible and beneficial to offer massage to reduce stress-related symptoms among health-care providers (Engen, Keller, Mahdizadeh).

For athletes: improved strength, speedy recovery

The research about massage for athletes is not always consistent; it seems to depend a lot on the sport in question, and the type of athlete being studied. In general, massage appears to be a better choice after an event instead of before it (Mine). One study found massage may improve strength in muscles damaged by overuse (Shin); another suggests that people who receive massage feel they recover from overexertion more quickly, so they can return to training sooner (Poppendiek). A systematic review of several studies found that immune system recovery is supported by post exercise massage (Tejero-Fernández). 

For people with musculoskeletal injuries: noninvasive options, long-lasting results 

Muscular aches and pains drive many clients to seek massage. Here is a synopsis of what the most current research says about this intervention:

Muscle and tendon injuries

Muscle and tendon injuries are usually related to overuse. Research has revealed that when these injuries persist, traditional anti-inflammatories are not effective, and physicians are encouraged to explore noninvasive options before recommending surgical repair. Fortunately, these injuries often respond well to manual therapies. Studies of tendon injuries in a violinist (Wilk), at the elbow (Yi), at the Achilles tendon (Li, H. Y.), and the knee (Cook) show that skilled massage therapy can be a helpful contributor to successful muscle and tendon recovery.

Sprains

Sprains (torn ligaments) often respond well to massage therapy along with some movement therapy. Research has shown that stimulating nerves in the area of sprains can improve balance and stability, especially around the ankle (Stecco, Wikstrom).

Plantar fasciitis 

Many physicians recommend massage therapy, especially to the muscles of the lower leg, as part of treatment for plantar fasciitis (Goff, Schwartz). However, relatively little research has been done on this topic. One study compared massage and exercise to ultrasound and exercise, and found that massage led to longer-lasting relief for the participants (Saban), and a small systematic review found support for soft tissue mobilization to help patients with plantar fasciitis (Pollack).

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

A systematic review combining findings from dozens of studies found that massage therapy was helpful for CTS symptoms (Huisstede). This supports similar conclusions of studies that found patients with CTS who received massage had significant decreases in symptom severity and improvements in strength and function of their hands and wrists—especially in comparison with other interventions (Elliott, Wolny, Moraska).

For people with insomnia: improved sleep quality for many

Much of the research about massage therapy as a way to manage sleep quality and insomnia has been done in the context of other conditions. For instance, one study found that massage helped reduce insomnia symptoms for women who are postmenopausal (Hachul). A systematic review concluded that massage could improve sleep quality for women who are pregnant (Hollenbach). Several studies find that massage helps people to sleep better while they deal with complex medical conditions such as breast cancer (Kashani, Tarrasch); congestive heart failure (Sable); or chronic health conditions in children (Brown). 

For people with acute and chronic pain: a safe and effective option 

Massage therapy for pain in general has a strong evidence base, led by a massive systematic review comprising nearly 70 studies that found it compares well with several other interventions for pain and restored function, and that it has the added benefit of having a low risk of adverse events (Crawford). Another systematic review found evidence in favor of massage, along with several other nonpharmacologic interventions, for chronic noncancer pain (Lin).

For back and neck pain 

The American College of Physicians recommends massage as an early option for acute and subacute low-back pain (Qaseem). This is supported by evidence in favor of massage alone or massage plus exercise for back pain (Joseph, Skelly). Craniosacral therapy has also been seen to be helpful for chronic, uncomplicated low-back pain (Castro-Sánchez). And a systematic review of nonpharmacologic therapies for low-back pain recommends massage among other interventions (Chou). 

Similarly, manual therapy has robust evidence for clients with neck pain in a variety of settings, so it is often included in clinical practice guidelines managing neck pain (Puntumetakal, Chou, Kjaer, Bussières, Haller). 

For pain related to fibromyalgia

Research supports massage therapy for fibromyalgia, specifically for pain, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep (Castro-Sánchez, Oliveira). The best results were seen with long-term treatments, so this suggests that people with fibromyalgia commit to several weeks of regular massage to derive the most benefit (Kalichman, Li, Yuan). 

For headaches

Headaches, especially tension-type headaches and those related to neck pain and trigger points, appear to respond well to massage therapy. Researchers found that patients experienced lower levels of pain and reduced frequency (Moraska, Quinn, Hopper). All these findings support a systematic review that found massage can be as effective as pharmacological interventions for tension-type headaches (Chaibi). Massage therapy is so consistently helpful that it is recommended in clinical guidelines for headache care (Côté).

In the context of opioids

Because massage therapy is demonstrably effective for many kinds of pain, and because it is a comparatively low-risk treatment option, it is generating a lot of interest in the context of reducing the need for opioid drugs. Several policy-making organizations, including The Joint Commission, The US Department of Health and Human Services, and the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians have published strategies that could include massage therapy as a part of pain management to reduce reliance on opioid drugs (Massage & Bodywork).

For people living with chronic conditions: long-term management

While it was once considered an indulgence for healthy people, or a short-term intervention to help with a musculoskeletal injury, massage therapy is now often integrated into conventional health care for people who live with chronic conditions, including arthritis, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and kidney failure. 

Arthritis

Massage by itself or in combination with aromatherapy, can be an effective strategy to help manage symptoms and improve function in people who have arthritis. Some studies looked at whole-body relaxation treatments, while others examined bodywork, including self-massage, targeted to the affected area. (Perlman, Nasiri, Tosun, Atkins, Peungsuwan, Zwolińska).

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases, including lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma, present challenges that massage therapy can address. Pain, fatigue, quality of life, mood, and self-efficacy (the belief that one can succeed and thrive in spite of obstacles) are all positively affected by massage for people who live with autoimmune diseases (Schroeder, Finch, Poole). In addition, these specific benefits have been found:

Lupus
Massage therapy is a popular intervention among people with lupus (Morgan), but it hasn’t been extensively studied yet. Massage therapy along with acupuncture helped improve sleep and quality of life for a person with lupus in one case report (Mooventhan). 

Multiple sclerosis (MS)
A specific type of massage at the injection site for MS medication may help patients tolerate side effects (Márquez-Rebollo), and abdominal massage has been seen to help with constipation among people with MS (Coggrave).

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Moderate-pressure massage (compared to light-pressure massage) helped to decrease pain and increase grip strength in one study (Field), and foot reflexology was seen to improve pain and fatigue for people with RA as well (Metin).

Scleroderma
Many people with scleroderma have trouble with mobility in their hands and arms. Lymphatic massage and other types of bodywork have been demonstrated to be helpful with hand function, joint motion, and skin compliance (Bongi, Horváth, Poole).

Hypertension 

Multiple systematic reviews have found that massage along with antihypertensive drugs is more effective for managing hypertension than drugs alone (Xiong, Liao). A clinical trial found that blood pressure readings dropped after massage, and remained below baseline for 72 hours or more (Givi). These findings are confirmed by several other studies and systematic reviews, which conclude that massage therapy can be a helpful part of hypertension treatment, but doesn’t replace medication (Walaszek, Liao, Niu, Mohebbi). The type of massage appears to matter in this situation: in one important study Swedish massage reliably lowered blood pressure, but trigger-point work and sports massage raised blood pressure readings, at least temporarily (Cambron).

Diabetes

Skilled massage therapy has a number of documented benefits to offer people with diabetes. It has been seen to temporarily lower blood glucose, although how long this lasts is unpredictable (Sajedi). Massage alone or along with exercise has been seen to improve some biomarkers for this disease (Wändell) and to improve circulation in the legs (Castro-Sánchez). Foot reflexology and Thai massage have also been shown to improve tissue health (Silva), accurate sensation in the feet (Hasneli), and balance (Chatchawan, Tütün). 

Kidney failure, dialysis 

Only gentle bodywork is appropriate for people living with renal failure, but among these patients, massage may help with fatigue and depression (Raina, Cho). Dialysis patients often seek massage (Ceyhan), and find it helpful for itching, leg cramps, and general quality of life (Shahgholian, Mastnardo, Bullen).

For mental and emotional well-being: improved symptoms for anxiety and depression

Massage therapy has a surprisingly robust body of evidence showing benefits for people with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mood-related challenges. Much of this research has been done in settings where depression, anxiety, and stress are part of a larger health picture (such as among hospital patients, or in the context of chronic pain), although one study looked at the effects of massage therapy on 70 women diagnosed with anxiety and depression who underwent a month of spa treatments; not surprisingly, their stress-related hormones and other biochemical changes suggested that massage can be helpful in this circumstance (Bicikova). 

Depression

Several studies found massage therapy benefits for people living with depression, both as a freestanding disorder and as a part of a complicated health situation. A systematic review found that aromatherapy massage was substantially more effective than aromatherapy alone for this population (Sánchez-Vidaña). One study found clearly better results for people with major depressive disorder receiving Swedish massage compared to a sham treatment (Hohl). This is important because it helps to delineate between the effect of the bodywork, and the positive effect of spending time with an attentive caregiver. Both are useful, but in this situation the massage was more powerful.

Anxiety

Anxiety can be a freestanding disorder that radically impairs a person’s quality of life. It can also develop as a part of a complicated health challenge. In either case, welcomed touch in the form of massage therapy has been seen to be an effective treatment component. Results show it can be effective for patients with generalized anxiety disorder (Rapaport). It was also seen to decrease anxiety scores in hospital settings (Cutshall), and among caregivers of patients with cancer (Pinar). Massage with and without aromatherapy improved anxiety among patients in palliative care (Hsu) and in those receiving dialysis (Bullen). 

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 

Massage therapy is often recommended for survivors of torture, refugees, and veterans, if people are comfortable with touching and being touched (Collinge, Kahn, Davis, Longacre). Participants in these studies reported reductions in pain, tension, anxiety, irritability, depression, and other negative aspects of living with this complicated and challenging disorder.

For women: for cramps, labor, symptoms of menopause

Painful menstruation 

Painful menstruation, also called dysmenorrhea, is a leading reason for missed school and work. It has been the subject of substantial research, because massage therapy is a noninvasive, nonpharmaceutical, and low-risk option for women who struggle with painful cramps. One study found that connective tissue manipulation (a specialized type of bodywork on the back) was effective for menstrual pain (Özgül). Another study compared this technique to foot reflexology; both interventions were equally helpful for symptoms, and benefits lasted at least through the following menstrual cycle (Demirtürk). A meta-analysis that combined data from several studies concluded that abdominal aromatherapy massage was helpful for pain relief among women with menstrual cramps (Sut).

Pregnancy and postpartum

A review of interventions for pregnant women found that massage can be helpful for prenatal depression, and that training new mothers in infant massage was beneficial for both mothers and babies (Sangsawang, Letourneau), including premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (Zhang). Another study found that aromatherapy massage may enhance immune system function and decrease stress among pregnant women (Chen).

Labor and delivery 

Special training to offer massage during labor is available, and it appears to have significant benefits. A large-scale systematic review and meta-analysis found that massage may help to shorten labor, reduce pain, and improve women’s sense of control during childbirth (Smith). It compares well to other pain-relieving interventions (such as changing positions) during labor (Abdul-Sattar). Massage therapy is so effective in this setting that it is often included in prenatal education and recommendations for new parents (Levett).

Menopause, perimenopause 

Women who experience mood swings, hot flashes, insomnia, and other symptoms associated with perimenopause (the time leading up to the complete cessation of the menstrual cycle) are often enthusiastic consumers of massage therapy, and research supports this choice. Two studies found that massage may improve climacteric symptoms (that is, hot flashes and night sweats), and offered benefits related to insomnia for this population group (Oliveira, Hachul). Another study concluded that massage with and without aromatherapy could be helpful for menopausal women (Darsareh). A large study compared foot reflexology to nonspecific foot massage for women with hot flashes, night sweats, and other symptoms related to perimenopause; the women receiving reflexology had better improvement of symptoms compared to those receiving nonspecific foot massage (Gozuyesil).

One study concluded that traditional Thai massage may increase biomarkers that signal bone formation in postmenopausal women—this is a surprising finding that may lead to more exploration of manual therapies to promote bone density (Saetung). 

For elders: better balance, connection with others

Many older people view massage therapy as a helpful and welcome relaxing treat. One study compared 15 minutes of hand massage to 15 minutes of foot massage. Both interventions led to pleasant, relaxed, refreshed feelings (Nakano). This is reinforced by a systematic review of 14 clinical trials that concluded that massage offers benefits for health and well-being of older people in residential care facilities, and may promote increased engagement with others (McFeeters).

Improved balance

Older people often worry about balance, mobility, and the risk of falls. Some evidence suggests that massage therapy may have a role to play in this concern. This is not to say that massage therapy always prevents or lowers the risk of falling, but it seems to be a viable strategy that elders can use to manage this challenge. One study found long-term benefits in postural stability and other measures with weekly 60-minute therapeutic massage sessions (Sefton). Thai foot massage improved balance and mobility for patients with diabetic neuropathy (Chatchawan). Massage along with other interventions has also been used to improve balance, postural stability, and mobility for patients in general (Wikstrom), and for those with multiple sclerosis (Bisht), Parkinson’s disease (Donoyama), and other conditions.

Parkinson’s disease (PD)

Parkinson’s disease often involves tremors, progressive muscle tightness, and other symptoms, and PD patients often seek out massage for relief (Donley, Shin). Two studies found that abdominal massage was effective and well received by patients with PD and constipation (Coggrave, McClurg). Anma massage has been seen to help with stiffness, gait, and other functional outcomes (Donoyama). And an early study of Trager massage (a technique that uses rhythmic gentle shaking of the limbs and trunk) found it helped with some of the muscle rigidity that limits many patients with PD (Duval).

Alzheimer’s disease and dementia 

A substantial amount of evidence favors massage therapy and bodywork for people with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. A large-scale report found that massage therapy, along with other sensory enrichment experiences, may help to improve familiarity, reassurance, engagement, and connection for people with dementia (Bunn). Two systematic reviews found that massage therapy, as a nonpharmacological sensory practice, could be an important part of successful care for patients with various forms of dementia (Scales, Margenfeld). Another study found that massage therapy may be helpful for reducing agitation and aggressive behavior among this population (Dimitriou).

For children: help and support for chronic illness

A systematic review combined findings from 50 studies of manual therapies for children. They found that massage was consistently helpful for low-back pain, elbow pain, and premature babies, although positive findings were found for many other childhood complaints as well, including asthma, reflux, and cystic fibrosis. One important conclusion of this project was that massage therapy is usually a safe intervention, with a low risk of adverse events (Prevost). A treatment guideline for managing pain in pediatric pain patients recommends massage therapy among other options (Wren).

An overview of research done on massage therapy for children with cancer finds that qualitative reports (in which patients describe their experience with massage) are consistently positive; that massage appears to help with pain and anxiety; and that more research needs to be done to understand how best to help this population (Jacobs).

For people with cancer: pain relief, less anxiety, better sleep, and much more 

We used to think that because many types of massage claim to boost circulation (this is not strongly supported by research, by the way), and because cancer uses the blood and lymphatic systems to spread (it does, but it is an extremely complicated and multifactorial process), then massage therapy must be dangerous for any and all cancer patients. Research has revealed that carefully applied highly skilled massage therapy for people with cancer may offer many benefits, including these:

·   Improved sleep, reduced fatigue (Jacobs, Fernández-Lao, Miladinia) 

·  Reduced stress, anxiety, and depression (Krohn, Greenlee, Darabpour) 

·  Less nausea and constipation (Lyman, Zorba)

·  Improved immune system function (Fernandez-Lao, Khiewkhern, Armstrong) 

·   Improved quality of life (Donoyama, Rhee, Vergo) 

The benefits of massage therapy are so well demonstrated in the research that massage and manual lymphatic drainage are recommended in clinical practice guidelines, specifically for women in treatment for breast cancer (Greenlee). In addition, we have evidence in favor of massage for cancer-related pain, chemotherapy- induced peripheral neuropathy, and lymphedema. Massage therapy also appears to have many benefits for caregivers for patients with cancer.

Cancer-related pain 

Two systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found various types of massage therapy helpful for cancer-related pain (Lee, Boyd). A large study of almost 600 patients compared a protocol called Healing Touch to oncology massage therapy, and found that both elicited pain relief immediately after the treatment (Gentile). A similar study compared reiki therapy to massage, with a similar finding: both interventions helped with pain, fatigue, nausea, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being (Vergo). The Academic Consortium for Integrative Medicine and Health Care recognizes that massage therapy is a safe and effective pain-relieving intervention for patients with cancer (Tick). 

Lymphedema

Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer and cancer treatment. A variety of manual therapies have been developed to work with this condition, and they are frequently used in hospital and outpatient settings. Manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) is a type of bodywork that is considered an important component in complex decongestive therapy for people with lymphedema (Schaverien, Ozcan, Todd). A systematic review of several studies found that MLD led to a significant difference in fluid volume in the affected limb, compared to routine treatment (Shao). One study showed that combining MLD with another technique called proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation led to significant improvements in fluid volume, shoulder range of motion, pain, and depression in patients with lymphedema (Ha).

Peripheral neuropathy

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a complication of cancer treatment that can lead to numbness and pain. It can be severe enough to make it necessary to alter patients’ treatment schedules, so that cancer treatment may be less effective. A systematic review of nonpharmacologic interventions for CIPN suggested that massage therapy may be helpful in reducing CIPN symptoms (Oh). Massage therapy is often included in integrative medicine approaches to reduce CIPN and other complications of cancer treatment (Armstrong). And a case report found that manual therapy was associated with almost complete resolution of many symptoms of CIPN in one patient (Cunningham). 

For caregivers of patients with cancer

One clinical trial found that a simple back massage helped to improve anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and sleep quality for people who were caring for a loved one with cancer (Pinar). Another study found that even a single massage treatment resulted in immediate reduction of self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and anxiety for both patients and their caregivers (Lopez). 

In hospital settings—surgery patients, hospice: speedier recovery, support for healing 

Massage therapy in hospital settings is a relatively new field, but from dialysis facilities to outpatient clinics to surgical suites, massage is being used to promote wellness, lessen the risk of complications, and possibly to reduce reliance on pain medications.

A large systematic review and meta-analysis consolidated findings from 12 clinical trials to examine the role of massage for critically and acutely ill adults following thoracic surgery. The conclusion was that massage, in addition to pharmacological anesthesia, can reduce post-cardiac surgery pain intensity (Boitor).

One clinical trial showed that specialized massage to the abdomen can speed up recovery of gastrointestinal function after laparoscopy (Ruan). Another study found that massage to the face, neck, and shoulders improved recovery from nerve damage after a facial surgery; this is an important finding for plastic surgeons (Tsai).

In the context of joint replacement surgeries, massage therapy may have an important role in helping to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism—a common and dangerous complication (Imai). Another study found that massage may help minimize swelling after knee replacements, although this project used a massage tool rather than hands-on therapy (Kim). However, an earlier project also found that manual lymph drainage in the early days after knee replacement had a significant positive impact on knee flexion that lasted for several weeks (Ebert).

Hospice and palliative care patients are enthusiastic users of massage therapy (Harte), and an important study found that massage reduced the need for medication to treat pain and anxiety in a hospice ward (Pedersen). This supports a systematic review of 17 clinical trials that found that complementary and alternative medicine (including massage with and without aromatherapy) in hospice settings is associated with short-term benefits in symptom relief (Zeng).   

This review of research is by no means comprehensive; it is just a brief overview of the work that has been done in the relevant contexts. A vast amount of research about massage therapy is not touched upon in this collection, simply because the studies didn’t fit in the categories we decided to include. The field of massage therapy research is growing quickly, and each new publication helps us to understand more about how we can use massage therapy to promote health and to integrate with massage therapy with conventional health care.

 

The structure of this review was inspired by A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology, 7th ed. published by Books of Discovery.

 

Author's note: 

This content is offered as an evidence-informed summary of what we generally understand are some of the benefits of massage therapy.

 It is not an exhaustive literature review, which requires a different level of analysis of the cited studies.

 

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Cambron, Jerrilyn A., Jennifer Dexheimer, and Patricia Coe. “Changes in Blood Pressure After Various Forms of Therapeutic Massage: A Preliminary Study.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12, no. 1 (January 1, 2006): 65–70. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2006.12.65.

Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María, Inmaculada Carmen Lara-Palomo, Guillermo A. Matarán-Peñarrocha, Manuel Saavedra-Hernández, José Manuel Pérez-Mármol, and María Encarnación Aguilar-Ferrándiz. “Benefits of Craniosacral Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 22, no. 8 (August 2016): 650–57. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2016.0068.

Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María, Guillermo A. Matarán-Peñarrocha, José Granero-Molina, Gabriel Aguilera-Manrique, José Manuel Quesada-Rubio, and Carmen Moreno-Lorenzo. “Benefits of Massage-Myofascial Release Therapy on Pain, Anxiety, Quality of Sleep, Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia.” Research article. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/561753.

Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María, Carmen Moreno-Lorenzo, Guillermo A. Matarán-Peñarrocha, Belen Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Genoveva Granados-Gámez, and José Manuel Quesada-Rubio. “Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial.” Research article. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep171.

Ceyhan, Özlem, Songul Göris, Nevin Dogan, and Sevda Korkut Bayındır. “The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine23, no. 1 (January 2017): 40–45.

Chaibi, Aleksander, and Michael Bjørn Russell. “Manual Therapies for Primary Chronic Headaches: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” The Journal of Headache and Pain 15, no. 1 (2014): 67. https://doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-15-67.

Chatchawan, Uraiwan, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Piyawan Plandee, and Junichiro Yamauchi. “Effects of Thai Foot Massage on Balance Performance in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial.” Medical Science Monitor Basic Research 21 (April 20, 2015): 68–75. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSMBR.894163.

Chen, Pao-Ju, Cheng-Chen Chou, Luke Yang, Yu-Lun Tsai, Yue-Cune Chang, and Jen-Jiuan Liaw. “Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Pregnant Women’s Stress and Immune Function: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 23, no. 10 (October 2017): 778–86. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2016.0426.

Cho, Yi-Ching, and Shiow-Luan Tsay. “The Effect of Acupressure With Massage on Fatigue and Depression in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.” Journal of Nursing Research 12, no. 1 (March 1, 2004): 51–54. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JNR.0000387488.63438.9a.

Chou, Roger, Pierre Côté, Kristi Randhawa, Paola Torres, Hainan Yu, Margareta Nordin, Eric L. Hurwitz, Scott Haldeman, and Christine Cedraschi. “The Global Spine Care Initiative: Applying Evidence-Based Guidelines on the Non-Invasive Management of Back and Neck Pain to Low- and Middle-Income Communities.” European Spine Journal: Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society 27, no. Suppl 6 (September 2018): 851–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5433-8.

Chou, Roger, Richard Deyo, Janna Friedly, Andrea Skelly, Robin Hashimoto, Melissa Weimer, Rochelle Fu, et al. “Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline.” Annals of Internal Medicine 166, no. 7 (April 4, 2017): 493–505. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-2459.

Coggrave, Maureen, Christine Norton, and June D. Cody. “Management of Faecal Incontinence and Constipation in Adults with Central Neurological Diseases.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002115.pub5.

Collinge, William, Janet Kahn, and Robert Soltysik. “Promoting Reintegration of National Guard Veterans and Their Partners Using a Self-Directed Program of Integrative Therapies: A Pilot Study.” Military Medicine177, no. 12 (December 2012): 1477–85.

Cook, J, and K Khan. “What Is the Most Appropriate Treatment for Patellar Tendinopathy?” British Journal of Sports Medicine 35, no. 5 (October 2001): 291–94. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.35.5.291.

Côté, Pierre, Hainan Yu, Heather M. Shearer, Kristi Randhawa, Jessica J. Wong, Silvano Mior, Arthur Ameis, et al. “Non-Pharmacological Management of Persistent Headaches Associated with Neck Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline from the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.” European Journal of Pain (London, England), February 1, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1374.

Crawford, Cindy, Courtney Boyd, Charmagne F Paat, Ashley Price, Lea Xenakis, EunMee Yang, and Weimin Zhang. “The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part I, Patients Experiencing Pain in the General Population.” Pain Medicine: The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine 17, no. 7 (July 2016): 1353–75. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnw099.

Cunningham, Joan Elizabeth, Teresa Kelechi, Katherine Sterba, Nikki Barthelemy, Paul Falkowski, and Steve H. Chin. “Case Report of a Patient with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Treated with Manual Therapy (Massage).” Supportive Care in Cancer 19, no. 9 (July 16, 2011): 1473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1231-8.

Cutshall, Susanne M., Laura J. Wentworth, Deborah Engen, Thoralf M. Sundt, Ryan F. Kelly, and Brent A. Bauer. “Effect of Massage Therapy on Pain, Anxiety, and Tension in Cardiac Surgical Patients: A Pilot Study.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 16, no. 2 (May 1, 2010): 92–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.10.006.

Darabpour, Sara, Masoomeh Kheirkhah, and Erfan Ghasemi. “Effects of Swedish Massage on the Improvement of Mood Disorders in Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 18, no. 11 (August 10, 2016). https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.25461.

Darsareh, Fatemeh, Simin Taavoni, Soodabeh Joolaee, and Hamid Haghani. “Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Menopausal Symptoms: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Menopause 19, no. 9 (September 2012): 995. https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e318248ea16.

Davis, Lauren, Brenda Hanson, and Sara Gilliam. “Pilot Study of the Effects of Mixed Light Touch Manual Therapies on Active Duty Soldiers with Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Injury to the Head.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 20, no. 1 (January 2016): 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.03.006.

Day, A. L., L. Gillan, L. Francis, E. K. Kelloway, and M. Natarajan. “Massage Therapy in the Workplace: Reducing Employee Strain and Blood Pressure.” Giornale Italiano Di Medicina Del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia31, no. 3 Suppl B (September 2009): B25-30.

Demirtürk, Funda, Zümrüt Yilar Erkek, Özgür Alparslan, Fazlı Demirtürk, Osman Demir, and Ahmet Inanir. “Comparison of Reflexology and Connective Tissue Manipulation in Participants with Primary Dysmenorrhea.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 22, no. 1 (January 2016): 38–44. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2015.0050.

Dimitriou T-D, Verykouki E, Papatriantafyllou J, Konsta A, Kazis D, and Tsolaki M. “Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Agitation/Aggressive Behaviour in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.” Functional Neurology Vol. XXXIII, no. No. 3 (n.d.): 143–47. https://doi.org/10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.3.143.

Donley, Sarah, Sadie McGregor, Catherine Wielinski, and Martha Nance. “Use and Perceived Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease.” Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 58 (January 2019): 46–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.08.003.

Donoyama, Nozomi, Toyomi Satoh, Tetsutaro Hamano, Norio Ohkoshi, and Mamiko Onuki. “Effects of Anma Therapy (Japanese Massage) on Health-Related Quality of Life in Gynecologic Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” PloS One 13, no. 5 (2018): e0196638. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196638.

Donoyama, Nozomi, Sachie Suoh, and Norio Ohkoshi. “Effectiveness of Anma Massage Therapy in Alleviating Physical Symptoms in Outpatients with Parkinson’s Disease: A before-after Study.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 20, no. 4 (November 2014): 251–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.07.010.

Duval, Christian, Denis Lafontaine, Jacques Hébert, Alain Leroux, Michel Panisset, and Jean P. Boucher. “The Effect of Trager Therapy on the Level of Evoked Stretch Responses in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Rigidity.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 25, no. 7 (September 2002): 455–64.

Ebert, Jay R., Brendan Joss, Berit Jardine, and David J. Wood. “Randomized Trial Investigating the Efficacy of Manual Lymphatic Drainage to Improve Early Outcome after Total Knee Arthroplasty.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 94, no. 11 (November 2013): 2103–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.06.009.

Elliott, Rex, and Brendan Burkett. “Massage Therapy as an Effective Treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 17, no. 3 (July 2013): 332–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.12.003.

Engen, Deborah J., Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler, Ann Vincent, Tony Y. Chon, Stephen S. Cha, Connie A. Luedtke, Laura L. Loehrer, Liza J. Dion, Nancy J. Rodgers, and Brent A. Bauer. “Feasibility and Effect of Chair Massage Offered to Nurses during Work Hours on Stress-Related Symptoms: A Pilot Study.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 18, no. 4 (November 2012): 212–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.06.002.

Fernández-Lao, Carolina, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva, Lourdes Díaz-Rodríguez, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Carmen Sánchez-Salado, and Manuel Arroyo-Morales. “The Influence of Patient Attitude Toward Massage on Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Immune System after Application of Myofascial Release in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Crossover Study.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 35, no. 2 (February 1, 2012): 94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2011.09.011.

Field, Tiffany, Miguel Diego, Jeannette Delgado, Daniel Garcia, and C. G. Funk. “Rheumatoid Arthritis in Upper Limbs Benefits from Moderate Pressure Massage Therapy.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 19, no. 2 (May 2013): 101–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.12.001.

 Finch, Paul, and Susan Bessonnette. “A Pragmatic Investigation into the Effects of Massage Therapy on the Self Efficacy of Multiple Sclerosis Clients.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 18, no. 1 (January 1, 2014): 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2013.04.001.

Gentile, Danielle, Danielle Boselli, Gail O’Neill, Susan Yaguda, Chasse Bailey-Dorton, and Tara A. Eaton. “Cancer Pain Relief After Healing Touch and Massage.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 24, no. 9–10 (October 2018): 968–73. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0192.

Gentsch, Antje, Elena Panagiotopoulou, and Aikaterini Fotopoulou. “Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion.” Current Biology 25, no. 18 (September 21, 2015): 2392–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.049.

Givi, Mahshid. “Durability of Effect of Massage Therapy on Blood Pressure.” International Journal of Preventive Medicine 4, no. 5 (May 2013): 511–16.

Goff, James D., and Robert Crawford. “Diagnosis and Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis.” American Family Physician 84, no. 6 (September 15, 2011): 676–82.

Gozuyesil, Ebru, and Muruvvet Baser. “The Effect of Foot Reflexology Applied to Women Aged between 40 and 60 on Vasomotor Complaints and Quality of Life.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 24 (August 2016): 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2016.05.011.

Greenlee, Heather, Melissa J. DuPont‐Reyes, Lynda G. Balneaves, Linda E. Carlson, Misha R. Cohen, Gary Deng, Jillian A. Johnson, et al. “Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Evidence-Based Use of Integrative Therapies during and after Breast Cancer Treatment.” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 67, no. 3 (2017): 194–232. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21397.

Ha, Kyung-Jin, Sang-Yeol Lee, Hojun Lee, and Seung-Jun Choi. “Synergistic Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Manual Lymphatic Drainage in Patients with Mastectomy-Related Lymphedema.” Frontiers in Physiology 8 (November 28, 2017). https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00959.

Hachul, H., D.S. Oliveira, L.R.A. Bittencourt, M.L. Andersen, and S. Tufik. “The Beneficial Effects of Massage Therapy for Insomnia in Postmenopausal Women.” Sleep Science 7, no. 2 (June 2014): 114–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.slsci.2014.09.005.

Haller, Heidemarie, Romy Lauche, Holger Cramer, Thomas Rampp, Felix J. Saha, Thomas Ostermann, and Gustav Dobos. “Craniosacral Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Neck Pain.” The Clinical Journal of Pain32, no. 5 (May 2016): 441–49. https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000290.

Harte, Joanne, Helen Leahy, Jill McCarthy, and Tony O’Brien. “Exploring Patients’ Interest in Complementary Therapies in a Specialist Palliative Care Unit.” International Journal of Palliative Nursing 25, no. 3 (March 2, 2019): 108–10. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2019.25.3.108.

Hasneli, Yesi, and Yufitriana Amir. “Identification and Analysis of Foot Sensitivity and Blood Glucose Levels Post Apiyu Massage.” Enfermeria Clinica 29 Suppl 1 (March 2019): 19–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2018.11.009.

Hohl, Rodrigo, Andréa Camaz Deslandes, and Cláudia Helena Cerqueira Mármora. “The Effect of Single-Dose Massage Session on Autonomic Activity, Mood, and Affective Responses in Major Depressive Disorder.” Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses’ Association, February 27, 2019, 898010119832493. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898010119832493.

Hollenbach, Dana, Riley Broker, Stacia Herlehy, and Kent Stuber. “Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Sleep Quality and Insomnia during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.” The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 57, no. 3 (September 2013): 260–70.

Hopper, Diana, Yogita Bajaj, Chor Kei Choi, Osama Jan, Toby Hall, Kim Robinson, and Kathy Briffa. “A Pilot Study to Investigate the Short-Term Effects of Specific Soft Tissue Massage on Upper Cervical Movement Impairment in Patients with Cervicogenic Headache.” The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 21, no. 1 (February 2013): 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1179/2042618612Y.0000000018.

Horváth, J., Z. Bálint, E. Szép, A. Deiszinger, T. Minier, N. Farkas, E. Török, et al. “Efficacy of Intensive Hand Physical Therapy in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 35 Suppl 106, no. 4 (2017): 159–66.

Hsu, Chia-Hsien, Ching-Chi Chi, Pei-Shih Chen, Shu-Hui Wang, Tao-Hsin Tung, and Shih-Chung Wu. “The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Improvement of Anxiety among Patients Receiving Palliative Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Medicine 98, no. 9 (March 2019): e14720. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014720.

Huisstede, Bionka M., Peter Hoogvliet, Thierry P. Franke, Manon S. Randsdorp, and Bart W. Koes. “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Effectiveness of Physical Therapy and Electrophysical Modalities. An Updated Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 99, no. 8 (August 2018): 1623-1634.e23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.08.482.

Imai, Norio, Tomoyuki Ito, Ken Suda, Dai Miyasaka, and Naoto Endo. “Manual Calf Massage and Passive Ankle Motion Reduce the Incidence of Deep Vein Thromboembolism after Total Hip Arthroplasty.” Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association 22, no. 4 (July 2017): 726–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2017.03.006.

Jacobs, Shana, and Catriona Mowbray. “The Power of Massage in Children with Cancer—How Can We Do Effective Research?” Children 6, no. 1 (January 18, 2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/children6010013.

Jacobs, Shana, Catriona Mowbray, Lauren Muser Cates, Allison Baylor, Christopher Gable, Elizabeth Skora, Monica Estrada, et al. “Pilot Study of Massage to Improve Sleep and Fatigue in Hospitalized Adolescents With Cancer.” Pediatric Blood & Cancer 63, no. 5 (May 2016): 880–86. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25902.

Jakubiak, Brittany K., and Brooke C. Feeney. “Affectionate Touch to Promote Relational, Psychological, and Physical Well-Being in Adulthood: A Theoretical Model and Review of the Research.” Personality and Social Psychology Review: An Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc 21, no. 3 (2017): 228–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868316650307.

Joseph, Leonard H., Benjamaporn Hancharoenkul, Patraporn Sitilertpisan, Ubon Pirunsan, and Aatit Paungmali. “Effects of Massage as a Combination Therapy with Lumbopelvic Stability Exercises as Compared to Standard Massage Therapy in Low Back Pain: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.” International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork 11, no. 4 (December 1, 2018): 16–22.

Kahn, Janet R, William Collinge, and Robert Soltysik. “Post-9/11 Veterans and Their Partners Improve Mental Health Outcomes with a Self-Directed Mobile and Web-Based Wellness Training Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 18, no. 9 (September 27, 2016). https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5800.

Kalichman, Leonid. “Massage Therapy for Fibromyalgia Symptoms.” Rheumatology International 30, no. 9 (July 1, 2010): 1151–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-010-1409-2.

Kashani, Fahimeh, and Parisa Kashani. “The Effect of Massage Therapy on the Quality of Sleep in Breast Cancer Patients.” Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research 19, no. 2 (2014): 113–18.

Keller, Shelly R., Deborah J. Engen, Brent A. Bauer, David R. Holmes, Charanjit S. Rihal, Ryan J. Lennon, Laura L. Loehrer, and Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler. “Feasibility and Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Symptom Relief in Cardiac Catheter Laboratory Staff: A Pilot Study.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 18, no. 1 (February 2012): 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2011.08.006.

 Khiewkhern, Santisith, Supannee Promthet, Aemkhea Sukprasert, Wichai Eunhpinitpong, and Peter Bradshaw. “Effectiveness of Aromatherapy with Light Thai Massage for Cellular Immunity Improvement in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP14, no. 6 (2013): 3903–7.

Kim, Sun Mi, Sang-Rim Kim, Yong Ki Lee, Bo Ryun Kim, and Eun Young Han. “The Effect of Mechanical Massage on Early Outcome after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 27, no. 11 (November 2015): 3413–16. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.3413.

Kjaer, Per, Alice Kongsted, Jan Hartvigsen, Alexander Isenberg-Jørgensen, Berit Schiøttz-Christensen, Bolette Søborg, Charlotte Krog, et al. “National Clinical Guidelines for Non-Surgical Treatment of Patients with Recent Onset Neck Pain or Cervical Radiculopathy.” European Spine Journal: Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society 26, no. 9 (2017): 2242–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5121-8.

Krohn, Michaela, Miriam Listing, Gracia Tjahjono, Anett Reisshauer, Eva Peters, Burghard F. Klapp, and Martina Rauchfuss. “Depression, Mood, Stress, and Th1/Th2 Immune Balance in Primary Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Classical Massage Therapy.” Supportive Care in Cancer 19, no. 9 (September 1, 2011): 1303–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-010-0946-2.

Kunikata, Hiroko, Kumi Watanabe, Makoto Miyoshi, and Tetsuya Tanioka. “The Effects Measurement of Hand Massage by the Autonomic Activity and Psychological Indicators.” The Journal of Medical Investigation 59, no. 1,2 (2012): 206–12. https://doi.org/10.2152/jmi.59.206.

Lee, Sook-Hyun, Jong-Yeop Kim, Sujung Yeo, Sung-Hoon Kim, and Sabina Lim. “Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.” Integrative Cancer Therapies 14, no. 4 (July 2015): 297–304. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735415572885.

Letourneau, Nicole L., Cindy-Lee Dennis, Nela Cosic, and Jordana Linder. “The Effect of Perinatal Depression Treatment for Mothers on Parenting and Child Development: A Systematic Review.” Depression and Anxiety 34, no. 10 (2017): 928–66. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22687.

Levett, K. M., C. A. Smith, A. Bensoussan, and H. G. Dahlen. “The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth Study Making Sense of Labour and Birth - Experiences of Women, Partners and Midwives of a Complementary Medicine Antenatal Education Course.” Midwifery 40 (September 2016): 124–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2016.06.011.

Li, Hong-Yun, and Ying-Hui Hua. “Achilles Tendinopathy: Current Concepts about the Basic Science and Clinical Treatments.” Research article. BioMed Research International, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6492597.

 Li, Yan-hui, Feng-yun Wang, Chun-qing Feng, Xia-feng Yang, and Yi-hua Sun. “Massage Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” PLoS ONE 9, no. 2 (February 20, 2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089304.

Liao, I.-Chen, Shiah-Lian Chen, Mei-Yeh Wang, and Pei-Shan Tsai. “Effects of Massage on Blood Pressure in Patients With Hypertension and Prehypertension: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 31, no. 1 (February 2016): 73. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000217.

Lin, Yuan-Chi, Limeng Wan, and Robert N. Jamison. “Using Integrative Medicine in Pain Management: An Evaluation of Current Evidence.” Anesthesia and Analgesia 125, no. 6 (2017): 2081–93. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002579.

Longacre, McKenna, Ellen Silver-Highfield, Puja Lama, and Michael Grodin. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Treatment of Refugees and Survivors of Torture: A Review and Proposal for Action.” Torture: Quarterly Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture 22, no. 1 (2012): 38–57.

Lopez, Gabriel, Wenli Liu, Kathrin Milbury, Amy Spelman, Qi Wei, Eduardo Bruera, and Lorenzo Cohen. “The Effects of Oncology Massage on Symptom Self-Report for Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers.” Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer25, no. 12 (2017): 3645–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-017-3784-7.

Lovas, Judy M., Ashley R. Craig, Yvette D. Segal, Robert L. Raison, Kathryn M. Weston, and Margaret R. Markus. “The Effects of Massage Therapy on the Human Immune Response in Healthy Adults.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 6, no. 3 (July 1, 2002): 143–50. https://doi.org/10.1054/jbmt.2001.0251.

Lyman, Gary H., Heather Greenlee, Kari Bohlke, Ting Bao, Angela M. DeMichele, Gary E. Deng, Judith M. Fouladbakhsh, et al. “Integrative Therapies During and After Breast Cancer Treatment: ASCO Endorsement of the SIO Clinical Practice Guideline.” Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 36, no. 25 (September 1, 2018): 2647–55. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.79.2721.

MacSween, Alasdair, Susan Lorrimer, Paul van Schaik, Marie Holmes, and Anna van Wersch. “A Randomised Crossover Trial Comparing Thai and Swedish Massage for Fatigue and Depleted Energy.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 22, no. 3 (July 2018): 817–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2017.09.014.

Mahdizadeh, Mahdi, Ali Ansari Jaberi, and Tayebeh Negahban Bonabi. “Massage Therapy in Management of Occupational Stress in Emergency Medical Services Staffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork 12, no. 1 (March 4, 2019): 16–22.

Margenfeld, Felix, Carina Klocke, and Stefanie Joos. “Manual Massage for Persons Living with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” International Journal of Nursing Studies, January 4, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.12.012.

Márquez-Rebollo, Carmen, Luisa Vergara-Carrasco, Rosa Díaz-Navarro, Delia Rubio-Fernández, Pablo Francoli-Martínez, and Rainel Sánchez-De la Rosa. “Benefit of Endermology on Indurations and Panniculitis/Lipoatrophy During Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Long-Term Treatment with Glatiramer Acetate.” Advances in Therapy 31, no. 8 (August 1, 2014): 904–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-014-0137-5.

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Mastnardo, Diane, Janice M. Lewis, Kristi Hall, Catherine M. Sullivan, Katrice Cain, Jacqueline Theurer, Anne Huml, and Ashwini R. Sehgal. “Intradialytic Massage for Leg Cramps Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork 9, no. 2 (June 3, 2016): 3–8.

McClurg, D., K. Walker, P. Aitchison, K. Jamieson, L. Dickinson, L. Paul, S. Hagen, and A.-L. Cunnington. “Abdominal Massage for the Relief of Constipation in People with Parkinson’s: A Qualitative Study.” Parkinson’s Disease 2016 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4842090.

McFeeters, Sarah, Leeanne Pront, Lesley Cuthbertson, and Lindy King. “Massage, a Complementary Therapy Effectively Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Older People in Residential Care Settings: A Review of the Literature.” International Journal of Older People Nursing 11, no. 4 (December 2016): 266–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/opn.12115.

Metin, Zehra Gok, and Leyla Ozdemir. “The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage and Reflexology on Pain and Fatigue in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Pain Management Nursing17, no. 2 (April 1, 2016): 140–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2016.01.004.

Miladinia, Mojtaba, Shahram Baraz, Abdolali Shariati, and Amal Saki Malehi. “Effects of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on Symptom Cluster in Adult Patients With Acute Leukemia: Supportive Care in Cancer Nursing.” Cancer Nursing 40, no. 1 (February 2017): 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000353.

Mine, Koya, Di Lei, and Takashi Nakayama. “Is Pre-Performance Massage Effective To Improve Maximal Muscle Strength And Functional Performance? A Systematic Review.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 13, no. 5 (August 2018): 789–99.

Mohebbi, Zinat, Mehdi Moghadasi, Kaynoosh Homayouni, and Mohammad Hassan Nikou. “The Effect of Back Massage on Blood Pressure in the Patients with Primary Hypertension in 2012-2013: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery 2, no. 4 (October 2014): 251–58.

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Mooventhan, A., and L. Nivethitha. “Effects of Acupuncture and Massage on Pain, Quality of Sleep and Health Related Quality of Life in Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 5, no. 3 (2014): 186–89. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.140484.

Moraska, Albert, and Clint Chandler. “Changes in Clinical Parameters in Patients with Tension-Type Headache Following Massage Therapy: A Pilot Study.” The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 16, no. 2 (2008): 106–12.

Moraska, Albert, Clint Chandler, Amanda Edmiston-Schaetzel, Gaye Franklin, Elaine L. Calenda, and Brian Enebo. “Comparison of a Targeted and General Massage Protocol on Strength, Function, and Symptoms Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 14, no. 3 (April 2008): 259–67. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2007.0647.

Moraska, Albert F., Sarah J. Schmiege, John D. Mann, Nathan Burtyn, and Jason P. Krutsch. “Responsiveness of Myofascial Trigger Points to Single and Multiple Trigger Point Release Massages – a Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 96, no. 9 (September 2017): 639–45. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000728.

Moraska, Albert F., Lea Stenerson, Nathan Butryn, Jason P. Krutsch, Sarah J. Schmiege, and J. Douglas Mann. “Myofascial Trigger Point-Focused Head and Neck Massage for Recurrent Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” The Clinical Journal of Pain 31, no. 2 (February 2015): 159–68. https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000091.

Morgan, C, A R Bland, C Maker, J Dunnage, and I N Bruce. “Individuals Living with Lupus: Findings from the LUPUS UK Members Survey 2014.” Lupus 27, no. 4 (April 2018): 681–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961203317749746.

Nakano, Hideki, Takayuki Kodama, Tomohiro Ueda, Ikuko Mori, Tomiko Tani, and Shin Murata. “Effect of Hand and Foot Massage Therapy on Psychological Factors and EEG Activity in Elderly People Requiring Long-Term Care: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.” Brain Sciences 9, no. 3 (March 2019): 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030054.

Nasiri, Ahmad, and Mohammad Azim Mahmodi. “Aromatherapy Massage with Lavender Essential Oil and the Prevention of Disability in ADL in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 30 (February 2018): 116–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.12.012.

Niu, Jian-Fei, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Han-Tong Hu, Jia-Jie Wang, Yan-Ling Liu, and De-Hua Lu. “Should Acupuncture, Biofeedback, Massage, Qi Gong, Relaxation Therapy, Device-Guided Breathing, Yoga and Tai Chi Be Used to Reduce Blood Pressure?: Recommendations Based on High-Quality Systematic Reviews.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 42 (February 2019): 322–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2018.10.017.

Oh, Pok Ja, and You Lim Kim. “[Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacologic Interventions in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis].” Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 48, no. 2 (April 2018): 123–42. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2018.48.2.123.

Oliveira, D. S., H. Hachul, V. Goto, S. Tufik, and L. R. A. Bittencourt. “Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Insomnia and Climacteric Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women.” Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society 15, no. 1 (February 2012): 21–29. https://doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2011.587557.

Oliveira, Felipe Rodrigues de, Laura Cristina Visnardi Gonçalves, Filipy Borghi, Larissa Gabriela Rocha Ventura da Silva, Anne Elise Gomes, Gustavo Trevisan, Aglécio Luiz de Souza, Dora Maria Grassi-Kassisse, and Danilo Roberto Xavier de Oliveira Crege. “Massage Therapy in Cortisol Circadian Rhythm, Pain Intensity, Perceived Stress Index and Quality of Life of Fibromyalgia Syndrome Patients.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 30 (February 2018): 85–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.12.006.

Ozcan Didem, Meltem Dalyan, Sibel Unsal Delialioglu, Ulku Duzlu, Cemile Sevgi Polat, and Belma Fusun Koseoglu. “Complex Decongestive Therapy Enhances Upper Limb Functions in Patients with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.” Lymphatic Research and Biology 16, no. 5 (2018): 446–52. https://doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2017.0061.

Özgül, Serap, Esra Üzelpasaci, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, M. Sinan Beksaç, and Türkan Akbayrak. “Short-Term Effects of Connective Tissue Manipulation in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 33 (November 2018): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.07.007.

Pedersen, Karina, and Linda Björkhem-Bergman. “Tactile Massage Reduces Rescue Doses for Pain and Anxiety: An Observational Study.” BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care 8, no. 1 (March 1, 2018): 30–33. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2017-001421.

Perlman, Adam, Susan Gould Fogerite, Oliver Glass, Elizabeth Bechard, Ather Ali, Valentine Y. Njike, Carl Pieper, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Massage for Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 34, no. 3 (March 2019): 379–86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-018-4763-5.

Peungsuwan, Punnee, Phawinee Sermcheep, Papatsara Harnmontree, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Uraiwan Chatchawan, and Junichiro Yamauchi. “The Effectiveness of Thai Exercise with Traditional Massage on the Pain, Walking Ability and QOL of Older People with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial in the Community.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 26, no. 1 (January 2014): 139–44. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.139.

Pinar, Rukiye, and Fisun Afsar. “Back Massage to Decrease State Anxiety, Cortisol Level, Blood Prsessure, Heart Rate and Increase Sleep Quality in Family Caregivers of Patients with Cancer: A Randomised Controlled Trial.” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 16, no. 18 (2016): 8127–33. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.18.8127.

Pollack, Yosefa, Anat Shashua, and Leonid Kalichman. “Manual Therapy for Plantar Heel Pain.” Foot (Edinburgh, Scotland) 34 (March 2018): 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2017.08.001.

Poole, Janet. “Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation in the Person with Scleroderma.” Current Opinion in Rheumatology 22, no. 2 (March 1, 2010): 205–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e328335a7d2.

Poppendieck, Wigand, Melissa Wegmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, and Tim Meyer. “Massage and Performance Recovery: A Meta-Analytical Review.” Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)46, no. 2 (February 2016): 183–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0420-x.

Prevost, Carol Parnell, Brian Gleberzon, Beth Carleo, Kristian Anderson, Morgan Cark, and Katherine A. Pohlman. “Manual Therapy for the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 19 (March 13, 2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2447-2.

Puntumetakul, Rungthip, Rawiporn Pithak, Suwalee Namwongsa, Pongsatorn Saiklang, and Rose Boucaut. “The Effect of Massage Technique plus Thoracic Manipulation versus Thoracic Manipulation on Pain and Neural Tension in Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 31, no. 2 (February 2019): 195–201. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.31.195.

Qaseem, Amir, Timothy J. Wilt, Robert M. McLean, Mary Ann Forciea, and Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. “Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians.” Annals of Internal Medicine166, no. 7 (April 4, 2017): 514–30. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-2367.

Quinn, Christopher, Clint Chandler, and Albert Moraska. “Massage Therapy and Frequency of Chronic Tension Headaches.” American Journal of Public Health 92, no. 10 (October 2002): 1657–61.

Raina, Rupesh, Vinod Krishnappa, and Mona Gupta. “Management of Pain in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: Short Review.” Hemodialysis International 22, no. 3 (2018): 290–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12622.

Rapaport, Mark H., Pamela Schettler, and Catherine Bresee. “A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Repeated Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Healthy Individuals: A Study of Mechanisms of Action and Dosage.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18, no. 8 (August 2012): 789–97. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2011.0071.

Rapaport, Mark Hyman, Pamela Schettler, Erika R. Larson, Sherry A. Edwards, Boadie W. Dunlop, Jeffrey J. Rakofsky, and Becky Kinkead. “Acute Swedish Massage Monotherapy Successfully Remediates Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Proof-of-Concept, Randomized Controlled Study.” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 77, no. 7 (2016): e883-891. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m10151.

Rhee, Taeho Greg, Pamala A. Pawloski, and Helen M. Parsons. “Health-Related Quality of Life among US Adults with Cancer: Potential Roles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Health Promotion and Well-Being.” Psycho-Oncology, February 25, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.5039.

Ruan, Di, Jingjing Li, Junchang Liu, Dandan Li, Ning Ji, Cheng Wang, Yujiang Qu, and Yongtao Li. “Acupoint Massage Can Effectively Promote the Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function after Gynecologic Laparoscopy.” Journal of Investigative Surgery: The Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research, March 27, 2019, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2019.1577515.

Saban, Bernice, Daniel Deutscher, and Tomer Ziv. “Deep Massage to Posterior Calf Muscles in Combination with Neural Mobilization Exercises as a Treatment for Heel Pain: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.” Manual Therapy 19, no. 2 (April 2014): 102–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2013.08.001.

Sable, Amol, Thangaraj Sivabalan, and Akshaya Narayan Shetti. “Effectiveness of Back Massage on Sleep Pattern among Patients with Congestive Cardiac Failure.” Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research 22, no. 5 (2017): 359–62. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_142_16.

Saetung, Sunee, La-or Chailurkit, and Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul. “Thai Traditional Massage Increases Biochemical Markers of Bone Formation in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Crossover Trial.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13 (March 25, 2013): 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-69.

Sajedi, Firoozeh, et al. “How Effective Is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?” ResearchGate. Accessed March 26, 2019. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51766797_How_Effective_is_Swedish_Massage_on_Blood_Glucose_Level_in_Children_with_Diabetes_Mellitus.

Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel, Shirley Pui-Ching Ngai, Wanjia He, Jason Ka-Wing Chow, Benson Wui-Man Lau, and Hector Wing-Hong Tsang. “The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM 2017 (2017): 5869315. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5869315.

Sangsawang, Bussara, Chintana Wacharasin, and Nucharee Sangsawang. “Interventions for the Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers: A Systematic Review.” Archives of Women’s Mental Health, August 16, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-018-0901-7.

Scales, Kezia, Sheryl Zimmerman, and Stephanie J Miller. “Evidence-Based Nonpharmacological Practices to Address Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia.” The Gerontologist 58, no. Suppl 1 (January 2018): S88–102. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx167.

Schaverien, Mark V., Julie A. Moeller, and Sarah D. Cleveland. “Nonoperative Treatment of Lymphedema.” Seminars in Plastic Surgery 32, no. 1 (February 2018): 17–21. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1635119.

Schroeder, Brittany, Jennifer Doig, and Kalyani Premkumar. “The Effects of Massage Therapy on Multiple Sclerosis Patients’ Quality of Life and Leg Function.” Research article. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/640916.

Schwartz, Emily N, and John Su. “Plantar Fasciitis: A Concise Review.” The Permanente Journal 18, no. 1 (2014): e105–7. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/13-113.

Sefton, Joellen M., Ceren Yarar, and Jack W. Berry. “Six Weeks of Massage Therapy Produces Changes in Balance, Neurological and Cardiovascular Measures in Older Persons.” International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork 5, no. 3 (2012): 28–40.

Shahgholian, Nahid, Mahlagha Dehghan, Mojgan Mortazavi, Farzaneh Gholami, and Mahboobeh Valiani. “Effect of Aromatherapy on Pruritus Relief in Hemodialysis Patients.” Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research 15, no. 4 (2010): 240–44.

Shao, Y., and D.-S. Zhong. “Manual Lymphatic Drainage for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphoedema.” European Journal of Cancer Care 26, no. 5 (September 2017). https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12517.

Shin, Ju Young, Ryan T. Pohlig, and Barbara Habermann. “Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing 43, no. 2 (February 1, 2017): 46–54. https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20161109-04.

Shin, Mal-Soon, and Yun-Hee Sung. “Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 29, no. 8 (August 2015): 2255–60. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000688.

Silva, Natália Chantal Magalhães da, Érika de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Emilia Campos de Carvalho, Leonardo César Carvalho, Denise Hollanda Iunes, Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva, Érika de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Emilia Campos de Carvalho, Leonardo César Carvalho, and Denise Hollanda Iunes. “Foot Reflexology in Feet Impairment of People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Randomized Trial.” Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 23, no. 4 (August 2015): 603–10. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.0036.2594.

Siško, Polona Kršmanc, Mateja Videmšek, and Damir Karpljuk. “The Effect of a Corporate Chair Massage Program on Musculoskeletal Discomfort and Joint Range of Motion in Office Workers.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 17, no. 7 (July 2011): 617–22. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0400.

Skelly, Andrea C., Roger Chou, Joseph R. Dettori, Judith A. Turner, Janna L. Friedly, Sean D. Rundell, Rongwei Fu, et al. Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), 2018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519953/.

Smith, Caroline A., Kate M. Levett, Carmel T. Collins, Hannah G. Dahlen, Carolyn C. Ee, and Machiko Suganuma. “Massage, Reflexology and Other Manual Methods for Pain Management in Labour.” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3 (28 2018): CD009290. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009290.pub3.

Stecco, Antonio, Carla Stecco, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Claudio Ferraro, Stefano Masiero, and Raffaele De Caro. “RMI Study and Clinical Correlations of Ankle Retinacula Damage and Outcomes of Ankle Sprain.” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA 33, no. 10 (December 2011): 881–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-011-0784-z.

Sut, Necdet, and Hatice Kahyaoglu-Sut. “Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Meta-Analysis.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 27 (May 2017): 5–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.01.001.

Tarrasch, Ricardo, Narin N. Carmel-Neiderman, Sarah Ben-Ami, Bella Kaufman, Raphi Pfeffer, Merav Ben-David, and Dorit Gamus. “The Effect of Reflexology on the Pain-Insomnia-Fatigue Disturbance Cluster of Breast Cancer Patients During Adjuvant Radiation Therapy.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 24, no. 1 (January 2018): 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0023.

Tejero-Fernández, Victor, Miguel Membrilla-Mesa, Noelia Galiano-Castillo, and Manuel Arroyo-Morales. “Immunological Effects of Massage after Exercise: A Systematic Review.” Physical Therapy in Sport: Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine 16, no. 2 (May 2015): 187–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.07.001.

Tick, Heather, Arya Nielsen, Kenneth R. Pelletier, Robert Bonakdar, Samantha Simmons, Ronald Glick, Emily Ratner, et al. “Evidence-Based Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Comprehensive Pain Care: The Consortium Pain Task Force White Paper.” Explore (New York, N.Y.) 14, no. 3 (June 2018): 177–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.02.001.

Todd, Marie. “Identification, Assessment and Management of Breast Oedema after Treatment for Cancer.” International Journal of Palliative Nursing 23, no. 9 (September 2, 2017): 440–44. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2017.23.9.440.

Tosun, Betul, Nursemin Unal, Deniz Yigit, Nuray Can, Ozlem Aslan, and Servet Tunay. “Effects of Self-Knee Massage With Ginger Oil in Patients With Osteoarthritis: An Experimental Study.” Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 31, no. 4 (November 1, 2017): 379–92. https://doi.org/10.1891/1541-6577.31.4.379.

Tsai, Pai-Tai, Yen-Ching Chang, and Yuan-Wu Chen. “Connective Tissue Massage Accelerates Recovery of Facial Nerve Palsy after Orthognathic Surgery.” Journal of Dental Sciences 11, no. 1 (March 2016): 107–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2015.07.005.

Tütün Yümin, Eylem, Tülay Tarsuslu Şimşek, Meral Sertel, Handan Ankaralı, and Murat Yumin. “The Effect of Foot Plantar Massage on Balance and Functional Reach in Patients with Type II Diabetes.” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 33, no. 2 (February 2017): 115–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2016.1271849.

Vergo, Maxwell T., Briane M. Pinkson, Kathleen Broglio, Zhongze Li, and Tor D. Tosteson. “Immediate Symptom Relief After a First Session of Massage Therapy or Reiki in Hospitalized Patients: A 5-Year Clinical Experience from a Rural Academic Medical Center.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 24, no. 8 (August 2018): 801–8. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0409.

Walaszek, Robert. “Impact of Classic Massage on Blood Pressure in Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Hypertension.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 35, no. 4 (August 15, 2015): 396–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6272(15)30115-1.

Wändell, P. E., J. Ärnlöv, A. Nixon Andreasson, K. Andersson, L. Törnkvist, and A. C. Carlsson. “Effects of Tactile Massage on Metabolic Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes & Metabolism 39, no. 5 (October 1, 2013): 411–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2013.02.002.

Wikstrom, Erik A., Kyeongtak Song, Ashley Lea, and Nastassia Brown. “Comparative Effectiveness of Plantar-Massage Techniques on Postural Control in Those With Chronic Ankle Instability.” Journal of Athletic Training 52, no. 7 (July 2017): 629–35. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-52.4.02.

Wilk, Iwona, Donata Kurpas, Waldemar Andrzejewski, Ewa Okręglicka-Forysiak, Bohdan Gworys, and Krzysztof Kassolik. “The Application of Tensegrity Massage in a Professionally Active Musician - Case Report.” Rehabilitation Nursing: The Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses 41, no. 3 (June 2016): 179–92. https://doi.org/10.1002/rnj.152.

 Wolny, Tomasz, Edward Saulicz, Paweł Linek, Michael Shacklock, and Andrzej Myśliwiec. “Efficacy of Manual Therapy Including Neurodynamic Techniques for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 40, no. 4 (2017): 263–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.02.004.

Wren, Anava A., Alexandra C. Ross, Genevieve D’Souza, Christina Almgren, Amanda Feinstein, Amanda Marshall, and Brenda Golianu. “Multidisciplinary Pain Management for Pediatric Patients with Acute and Chronic Pain: A Foundational Treatment Approach When Prescribing Opioids.” Children 6, no. 2 (February 21, 2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020033.

Xiong, X. J., S. J. Li, and Y. Q. Zhang. “Massage Therapy for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Human Hypertension 29, no. 3 (March 2015): 143–51. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2014.52.

Yi, Rosemary, Walter W. Bratchenko, and Virak Tan. “Deep Friction Massage Versus Steroid Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.” Hand (New York, N.Y.) 13, no. 1 (January 2018): 56–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558944717692088.

Yuan, Susan Lee King, Luciana Akemi Matsutani, and Amélia Pasqual Marques. “Effectiveness of Different Styles of Massage Therapy in Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Manual Therapy 20, no. 2 (April 1, 2015): 257–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2014.09.003.

Zeng, Yvette S., Connie Wang, Kristina E. Ward, and Anne L. Hume. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Hospice and Palliative Care: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management56, no. 5 (November 2018): 781-794.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.07.016.

Zhang, Xiaoning, and Jun Wang. “Massage Intervention for Preterm Infants by Their Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN, March 18, 2019, e12238. https://doi.org/10.1111/jspn.12238.

Zorba, Pinar, and Leyla Ozdemir. “The Preliminary Effects of Massage and Inhalation Aromatherapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.” Cancer Nursing 41, no. 5 (October 2018): 359–66. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000496.

Zwolińska, Jolanta, Aneta Weres, and Justyna Wyszyńska. “One-Year Follow-Up of Spa Treatment in Older Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Single Group Study.” BioMed Research International 2018 (July 2, 2018). https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7492106.

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